The main areas of research in the Besio Lab are brain computer interfacing and neuromodulation. Electroencephalography (EEG) is the least costly and most widely used noninvasive technique for diagnosing many brain problems. It has high temporal resolution, but lacks high spatial resolution and is usually fraught with artifacts such as from muscle contractions. To improve the EEG spatial resolution and signal-to-noise ratio, Dr. Besio has pioneered the development of the tripolar concentric ring electrode (TCRE) configuration. We have used the tripolar EEG (tEEG) to detect high-frequency oscillations (HFOs) consistently prior to patients having seizures and improve the accuracy of the imagined movement brain computer interface (BCI). We have also shown that noninvasive transcranial focal electrical stimulation (TFS) from the same tripolar concentric ring electrodes has aborted or attenuated seizures from three different acute seizure models. Beyond seizure control, TFS enhances the antiepileptic drug (diazepam) and increases the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA and down regulates the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate.